and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. The posterior spiracles are located in the dorsal third of the segment as viewed from the rear of the larva. European cherry fruit fly is the most serious pest of cherries in Europe. However, avocado, mango and papaya are the most commonly attacked. The life spans of a species of fruit fly have a bell-shaped distribution, with a mean of 30 days and a standard deviation of 4 days. Adult female (center) and anterior spiracle of third instar larva (lower left). Figure 5. The genus Bactrocera includes nearly 600 species, Figure 7. In this study, the diversity and distribution of fruit fly parasitoids and their reservoir plants along a latitudinal gradient in three zones of mango production in Senegal were reported. When it has been detected in Florida, California, and Texas, especially in recent years, each infestation necessitated intensive and massive eradication and detection procedures so that the pest did not become established. Taxonomy and distribution of the oriental fruit fly and related species (Tephritidae, Diptera). The Oriental fruit fly (. Cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton with large convex, sharply pointed mouth hook each side, each hook about 2X hypostome length; hypostomium with prominent, semi-rounded subyhypostomium; post-hypostomial plates curved gradually to dorsal bridge, fused with sclerotized rays of central area of dorsal wing plate but with a semi-articulated area between; parastomium prominent; dorsal wing plate with posterior ray split; dorsal bridge anterior with a sclerotized point; pharyngeal plate about 25% longer than dorsal wing plate, with median area below dorsal bridge relatively unsclerotized, and a prominent hood. Anterior spiracle of larva. The extensive damage caused by the oriental fruit fly in areas similar to Florida indicates that this species could rapidly become a very serious pest of citrus and other fruit and vegetables if it became established in Florida. Schutze MK, Aketarawong N, Amornsak W, Armstrong KF, Augustinos AA, Barr N, Bo W, Bourtzis K, Boykin LM, Cáceres C, Cameron SL, Chapman TA, Chinvinijkul S, Chomic A, De Meyer M, Drosopoulou E, Englezou A, Ekesi S, Gariou-Papalexiou A, Geib SM, Hailstones D, Hasanuzzaman M, Haymer D, Hee AKW, Hendrichs J, Jessup A, Ji Q, Khamis FM, Krosch MN, Leblanc L, Mahmood K, Malacrida AR, Mavragani-Tsipidou P, Mwatawala M, Nishida R, Ono H, Reyes J, Rubinoff D, San Jose M, Shelly TE, Srikachar S, Tan KH, Thanaphum S, Haq I, Vijaysegaran S, Wee SL, Yesmin F, Zacharopoulou A, Clarke R. 2015. Synonymization of key pest species within the. On the other hand are fruit fly foggers designed for application in … In this region, the Oriental fruit fly completed 4–5 generations per year, and infested the local vegetables and fruits all the year around. Photograph by Okinawa Prefectural Fruit Fly Eradication Project Office. Bactrocera dorsalis was formerly known as Dacus dorsalis. To the south of Guannan, Yuanjiang and Rulin is the annual distribution zone. Host plant records for fruit flies in tHe pacific islands 11 Host Plant Records for Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacini) in the Pacific Islands Luc Leblanc1, Ema Tora Vueti2, Richard A. I. Drew3*, and Allan J. Allwood4 1University of Hawaii, Department of Plant and Environmental Protection Sciences, 3050 Maile Way, Room 310, Honolulu, Hawaii, 26822–2271. These markings may form a T-shaped pattern, but the pattern varies considerably. Internac. The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata(Wiedemann), is one of the world's most destructive fruit pests. San Salvador: Org. Figure 11. The peak abundance of the oriental fruit fly took place from June in Jinghong to October in Yiaoan, along the altitude graduates from the south to the north. Eggs of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). The adult flies congregate on foliage and fruit to feed on bacterial colonies and later to mate. 2007. Phillips VT. 1946. Mexican fruit fly adults have been trapped a number of times in California and several infestations have been eradicated from the state. Hardy DE. The caudal segment is very smooth. All Japanese territories were declared free of the oriental fruit fly in 1985, after an 18-year program of eradication combining insecticide-impregnated fiberblocks or cotton containing the powerful male attractant methyl-eugenol, and the sterile insect (sterile male) technique. Find the Z-score that corresponds to each life span. 2005). Four major oriental fruit fly infestations in California were eradicated between 1960 and 1997. Foote RH, Blanc FL. Pruitt JH. Drawing by Division of Plant Industry. 1989. Agropec. This has occurred in 10 of the previous 17 years, and twice resulted in eradication programs: in Tampa in 2004 and in Miami-Dade County in 2015-2016.Â. Environmental Entomology 20: 1732-1736. 2007): Asia: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China (southern), Hong Kong, India (numerous states), Indonesia, Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Ogasawara Islands, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Africa: most countries of sub-Saharan Africa have become infested since the first appearance of oriental fruit fly (as Bactrocera invadens) in Kenya in 2003 (Goergen et al. Question: (4 Point) The Thorax Lengths In A Population Of Male Fruit Flies Follow A Normal Distribution With Mean 0.785 Millimeters (rm) And Standard Deviation 0.082 Mm. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 12: 1-161. Figure 8. Mexican fruit fly is one of the world's most destructive invasive pests, attacking more than 40 different kinds of fruits and vegetables. In an investigation of fruit-fly behavior, a covered choice chamber is used to test whether the spatial distribution of flies is affected by the presence of a substance placed at one end of the chamber. In heavily infested areas, the fly can destroy up to 100 percent of cherry and other host plants if left uncontrolled. 1983. Injury to fruit, as with other members of this genus of fruit flies, occurs through oviposition punctures and subsequent larval development. As a result of their widespread distribution, pest status, invasive ability and potential impact on market access, B. dorsalis and many other fruit fly species are considered major threats to many countries. Adults of the wasp Biosteres arisanus, a parasitoid of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Steiner traps baited with a lure and toxicant are also used to monitor the presence and control of the flies. Photograph by Okinawa Prefectural Fruit Fly Eradication Project Office. Insects Micronesia (Honolulu) 14: 1-28. It is the principal pest of mangoes in the Philippines. Adults of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Additional infestations were detected in 2002 and 2004, and were eradicated in 2006 and 2007 respectively. ( 2015 ). Hardy DE, Adachi M. 1956. Due to confusion with other species, some country records have been based on misidentifications. Drew RAI, Courtice AC, Teakle DS. Caudal end with paired dorsal papillules (D1 and D2) diagonally dorsad to each spiracular plate; intermediate papillules (I1-2) as widely-separated pair on a large raised and curved elevation diagonally ventrad of each spiracular plate, with a remote I3 at about 45° from the I1-2 elevation; L1 on the median edge of the caudal end; a pair of ventral papillules (V1-2) approximately ventrad of I2 near the latero-ventral edge of the caudal end (V2 indistinct); posterior spiracles as three elongated (ca. Adult: The common fruit fly is normally a yellow brown (tan) color, and is only about 3 mm in length and 2 mm in width (Manning 1999, Patterson, et al 1943). Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Under optimum conditions, a female can lay more than 3,000 eggs during her lifetime, but under field conditions from 1,200 to 1,500 eggs per female is considered to be the usual production. Larva white; typical fruit fly shape (cylindrical-maggot shape, elongate, anterior end narrowed and curved ventrally, with anterior mouth hooks, ventral fusiform areas and flattened caudal end); last instar larvae of average size for family, 7 to 11 mm in length; venter with fusiform areas on segments 4 to 11; anterior buccal carinae relatively short and slender, usually nine to 10 in number; anterior spiracles nearly straight on distal edge, with tubules averaging nine to 11 in number, somewhat globose in appearance. In the United States, oriental fruit fly is currently present on all major Hawaiian islands after being accidentally introduced there 1944 or 1945 (Mau 2007). Egg: The white, elongate and elliptical egg measures about 1.17 x 0.21 mm and has a chorion without sculpturing. Figure 14. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. Apparently, ripe fruit are preferred for oviposition, but immature ones may also be attacked. 2011), Pacific Islands: Mariana Islands, Tahiti, Hawaii. Host and geographic distribution: Knowing the locality, host or lure a fruit fly was collected from can provide invaluable information towards making a diagnosis, but must also be used with caution to avoid falsely identifying a specimen as pest or Learn more. Journal of Chemical Ecology 15: 1399-1405. ; Distribution Ebeling W. 1959. These bacterial colonies are more plentiful under humid conditions. Several biotic factors limit the production and productivity of cucurbits, of which the cucurbit fruit fly, Bactrocera cu-curbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), has been the most prominent pest. Photograph by Scott Bauer, USDA. Generally, the abdomen has two horizontal black stripes and a longitudinal median stripe extending from the base of the third segment to the apex of the abdomen. In July 2010, fruit flies were discovered in traps in Sacramento and Placer counties. The Geographic Distribution Map of C. capitata (Updated December 2013). Female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, ovipositing on citrus fruit. Identification of Fruit Fly Larvae Frequently Intercepted at Ports of Entry of the United States. USDA Compendium of Fruit Fly Host Information ***** UNAUTHORIZED ACCESS IS PROHIBITED ***** You are accessing a U.S. Government information system, which may be accessed and used only for official Government business (or as otherwise permitted by regulation) by authorized personnel. 2004). Diptera: Tephritidae. The trap experiments located in 12 counties of Yunnan indicated that, the geographical distribution of Oriental fruit fly there could be plotted as three distribution zones. Determine whether any of these life spans are unusual. Working off-campus? USDA-APHIS, in cooperation with threatened states, has established action plans that go into effect when fruit flies are trapped and reported (USDA 2008). Distribution: This pest overlaps with oriental fruit fly and peach fruit fly in large areas of south and southeast Asia. Adult: The adult, which is noticeably larger than a house fly, has a body length of about 8.0 mm; the wing is about 7.3 mm in length and is mostly hyaline. Figure 6. Other synonyms include Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, and Bactrocera philippinensis Drew & Hancock (Schutze et al. 1969. University of California, Division of Agricultural Science 436 pp. Figure 2. Given the life spans of a species of fruit fly have a bell-shaped distribution, with the mean of 33 days and the standard deviation of 4 days. Once there, the oriental fruit fly soon became a more injurious species than the Mediterranean fruit fly or the melon fly. Distribution data from areas outside Africa were obtained As the common name, Ethiopian fruit fly, suggests, D. ciliatus is native to East Africa (Vayssières et al., 2008). 1989. Fruit flies are important pests of fruits, vege-tables, and other ornamental plants (Bharathi et al. Oecologia (Berlin) 60: 279-284. The fly attacks ripening fruit, causing it to rot and fall off the tree. Posterior spiracles and anal lobes of larva. Drawing by Division of Plant Industry. II. 1949. Bacteria as a natural source of food for adult fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). Development from egg to adult under summer conditions requires about 16 days. The oriental fruit fly has been recorded from 478 kinds of fruit and vegetables (USDA 2016), including: apricot, avocado, banana, citrus, coffee, fig, guava, loquat, mango, roseapple, papaya, passion fruit, peach, pear, persimmon, pineapple, surinam cherry and tomato. Pupation occurs in the soil. The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is a key pest of fruit crops in many tropical, subtropical and mild temperate areas worldwide. The economic importance of this fruit fly is increasing due to its invasion of new geographical areas. The tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) of the Australasian and Oceanian region. 1985. In elevation, the Oriental fruit fly was trapped at altitude of 500–2300 m above sea level, in which high trap catches appeared between 500–1000 m. It is proposed that the variations of the fruit fly distribution in altitude and latitude are principally correlated with local temperatures and host plants. We found B. dorsalis to be distributed in 75 countries (comprised of 124 geographical distribution regions: provinces or states) in Asia, Africa, North … Berg GH. Effect of ripeness and location of papaya fruits on the parasitization rates of Oriental fruit fly and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by braconid (Hymenoptera) parasitoids. Offices with kitchens and warehouses that ship produce are also likely to have fruit fly infestations. Head and buccal carinae of larva. Figure 13. The mature larva emerges from the fruit, drops to the ground, and forms a tan to dark brown puparium about 4.9 mm in length. Distribution: Queensland fruit fly is a native pest occurring throughout eastern Australia. Cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton of larva. Drawing by Division of Plant Industry. 36 pp. The Mexican fruit fly is found in Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico and Nicaragua. Abstract The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest inaect for vegetables and fruits in Yunnan Province. Impact of introduction of. Damage associated with this pest is caused by larval feeding in the fruit pulp, which can result in losses of up to 100% if left uncontrolled. Hardy DE. Learn about our remote access options, Institute of Ecology and Geobotany, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091, China. Fruit flies also may breed and develop in drains, garbage disposals, trash cans, and mop buckets. Infestations of 50–80% have been recorded in pear, peach, apricot, fig and other fruits in West Pakistan. The color of the fly is very variable, but there are prominant yellow and dark brown to black markings on the thorax. View the article PDF and any associated supplements and figures for a period of 48 hours. About nine days are required for attainment of sexual maturity after the adult fly emerges. Other species in the genus Anastrepha including the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens.. Mexican fruit fly, A. ludens has a much longer ovipositor (3.35 - 4.7 mm long in A. ludens). 20: 395-428. When the fruit fly exclusion zone was withdrawn in Victoria and New South Wales in 2013, B. tryoni became endemic once again in this area and the national distribution of B. tryoni changed. A quarantine was established and an eradication program begun (CDFA 2010). Photograph by Okinawa Prefectural Fruit Fly Eradication Project Office. The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. Drawing by Division of Plant Industry. Caudal end of larva. suspensa. To the north of Luku, Dayiao and Qujing is the zone without the insect, where the Oriental fruit fly was not trapped and no fruits infested by the fly were found during the present study. Maggots feed inside the fruits, but at times also f… Figure 12. Adult female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), laying eggs by inserting her ovipositor in … Susceptibility of California fruits and vegetables to attack by the Oriental fruit fly (. The above descriptions were from larvae examined in verified samples from Hawaii (in immatures collection of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods). Adult female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), laying eggs by inserting her ovipositor in a papaya. This pest has been intercepted on many occasions at ports of entry on the U.S. mainland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 26. There are traps which can be used to detect the presence of fruit fly. 3X width) oval openings on each kidney-shaped spiracular plate, with dorsal and ventral spiracles angled to the caudal end center, and the median spiracle relatively straight; interspiracular processes (hairs) numerous, at four sites on each plate, latero-distal to spiracles, and the tips usually bifurcate; anal lobes entire and prominent. The only band of spinules encircling the body is found on the first segment. University of Florida (Gainesville), MS thesis. It was introduced into the Hawaiian Islands about 1945, apparently by U.S. military troops returning to the islands. (a) The life spans of three randomly selected fruit flies are 33 days, 29 days, and 42 days. What Are The Median And The First And Third Quartiles Of Thorax Length? The pest has established itself in the Rio Grande Valley of Southern Texas. The species originated in sub-Saharan Africa and is not known to be established in the continental United States. Some fruit, such as banana and avocado may be picked in a mature green condition, before fruit fly can lay its eggs in the fruit. Photograph by Okinawa Prefectural Fruit Fly Eradication Project Office. Adult female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), laying eggs in fruit. 1953. The ovipositor is very slender and sharply pointed. 1953. 2015). The developmental periods may be extended considerably by cool weather. Proceedings of the Entomology Society of Washington 51: 181-205. Most fruits can be affected including peaches, oranges, apples, pears, tomatoes and capsicums. The European cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cerasi L.) is the most serious pest of cherries. (July 2007). Host range: Queensland fruit fly infests both indigenous and introduced fruits. ... fruit fly complex which includes more than 68 species that are very closely related and difficult to identify. Photograph by Okinawa Prefectural Fruit Fly Eradication Project Office. Wong TTY, McInnis DO, Nishimoto JI. 1991. (2016). Steck GJ. Abstract The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest inaect for vegetables and fruits in Yunnan Province. Of spinules encircling the body is found in Belize, Costa Rica El..., 650091, China is unavailable due to technical difficulties 2011 ), Pacific Islands Mariana... 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These life spans of three randomly selected fruit flies were discovered in in! And papaya are the most serious pest of mangoes in the continental United States entry on the mainland!
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