Also note that the given values have been converted to cm. 4. Part 1: To investigate the relationship between... View more. ). Export citation and abstract BibTeX RIS. All the results for the correct constitution have been summarised in Table IX. /Length 8 /Filter/FlateDecode [2] ���cIJ8� �2�5�H�n�.$A�������TI�#�(QVg{�� '�����_�]��O84? A worksheet to enable students to analyse experimental data from the Young’s Modulus experiment. Young’s modulus of the material bar, = …………………………Nm -2 Example: For uniform bending for wood, p=0.5m, m= 0.02kg, g=9.8ms -2, pl 2 /e = 2.165 m 2, b=2.956 x 10 -2 m,d=50693 x 10 … 3 0 obj Add 100g mass to each wire to ensure tautness and no kinks. The previous section of Lesson 3 discussed Thomas Young's effort to derive an equation relating the wavelength of a light source to reliably measured distances associated with a two-point source light interference pattern. Where, 2. Aim of this experiment is to find the Young's modulus of the given material by uniform bending using pin and microscope method. e. Two slits that are 0.200 mm apart produce an interference pattern on a screen such that the central maximum and the 10th bright band are distanced by an amount equal to one-tenth the distance from the slits to the screen. The constant Y does not only depend on the force applied, but also the material of the wire. endstream Young's modulus. The bulk modulus (K) is like Young's modulus, except in three dimensions. Stress is given by force over area (F/A) and strain is given by the change in length over initial length (Δ L/L). Young's Modulus Experiment Lab report for Youngs Modulus Experiment. The Young’s modulus for a material can be measured using the experiment illustrated in Figure 2. The difficulty confronting Young was that the usual light sources of the day (candles, lanterns, etc.) b. <> 7 0 obj Since these two beams emerged from the same source - the sun - they could be considered coming from two coherent sources. The reference wire and test wire made of the selected material are hung from the ceiling. Bulk modulus (b) Abstract . A student uses a laser and a double-slit apparatus to project a two-point source light interference pattern onto a whiteboard located 5.87 meters away. This means that errors due to expansion during the experiment are avoided as the test wire and control wire would both expand by the same amount and the scale would adust position and eliminate the error. ), Light Waves and Color - Lesson 3 - Mathematics of Two-Point Source Interference. 2. stream ( Note that the fourth nodal line is assigned the order value of 3.5. Today's classroom version of the same experiment is typically performed using a laser beam as the source. Discussion on the effect of measurement uncertainties is included to help the more thorough experimental student improve the accuracy of his method. The reference wire supports a vernier scale, which will measure the extension of the test wire. The appropriate measurements are listed on the diagram. The vibrations are maintained electrically with the help of tiny magnets glued at the free end of the bar. Determine the Young modulus of a material Practical activities have been safety checked but not trialled by CLEAPSS. There are 106 µm in one meter; so there are 104 µm in one centimeter.). Each frame has a torsion head at the upper side and a hook at the lower side. To find the Young's modulus of the given material bar by non uniform bending using pin and microscope method. Young’s modulus is also used to determine how much a material will deform under a certain applied load. It is a measure of volumetric elasticity, calculated as volumetric stress divided by volumetric strain. It may be remarked here that in the case of organometallic compounds there is … Also note that the given values have been converted to cm. An experimental method has been devised to study the flexural vibrations of a bar to accurately determine the Young's modulus of its material. helpful 120 13. As discussed in the previous part of this lesson, it was important that the two sources of light that form the pattern be coherent. Since all spacings are the same distance apart, the distance between the second and the fifth bright bands would be the same as the distance between the central and the third bright bands. Our aim is to determine the Young’s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire using Searle’s apparatus. The unit of wavelength is cm. 1 The virtual physical laboratory is a suite of over … Our aim is to determine the Young’s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire using Searle’s apparatus. Young’s modulus is named after Thomas Young,19th century ,British scientist. University. 6. ( Note that there are 10 spacings between the central anti-node and the tenth bright band or tenth anti-node. Comments. Since there are 1000 millimeters in 1 meter, the 0.250 mm is equivalent to 0.000250 meter. © 1996-2020 The Physics Classroom, All rights reserved. Searle’s apparatus consists of two metal frames F 1 and F 2. Our Objective. Thus, m = 6.5. Also note that the given values have been converted to cm.). x�u�Ak�0���:�J�;`I�v+�0v���F����$�]GY[����l ���1������+l����?G$�� Ztءǐ6��ӆbi ��̥��)و3�u�0�If��\FK&�,ͼ4�[�`[և6 �(+p2"�/�R�.mD�狃ʲ�A�Ƽ�壓�R�|��)����y2�TN��"ټT�T]���G,�L$�f��m X�nR��^=�� X꒨�)��ڛ2�B�Nd��+Sр�gܨ�ŊD������2 c�l5 The interference pattern was then projected onto a screen where measurements could be made to determine the wavelength of light. The first experiments that used the concept of Young's modulus in its current form were performed by the Italian scientist Giordano Riccati in 1782, pre-dating Young's work by 25 years. endobj The values found were 0.57±0.02 for Poisson’s Ratio and 5±2GPa for Young’s modulus. *��g ( Note that the spacing between adjacent bands is given. (GIVEN: 1 meter = 109 nanometers). Thus, m = 1. This question simply asks to equate the stated information with the variables of Young's equation and to perform conversions such that all information is in the same unit. The perpendicular distance from the midpoint between the slits to the screen is 7.65 m. The distance between the two third-order antinodes on opposite sides of the pattern is 32.9 cm. ��C`����"�ð�u������|-F`KXNJ2�d]��iUO����U�� e�o�q��s�SYn���'xr�jn�#/��5p��l���Z���o7O�e�\� It is the ratio of tensile stress to tensile strain. stream The technique is sensitive enough to be able to detect changes in the elasticity modulus with a temperature change of just a few degrees. experimental method and to find its Young’s modulus SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES 1. Academic year. The formula for Young’s Modulus. Footnotes. h. Consecutive bright bands on an interference pattern are 3.5 cm apart when the slide containing the slits is 10.0 m from the screen. The equation, known as Young's equation is: In 1801, Young devised and performed an experiment to measure the wavelength of light. 3. The CSM method is also pivotal for the experimental determination of the local creep and strain-rate dependent mechanical properties of materials, as well as the local damping of visco-elastic materials. good and superb. The analysis of any two-point source interference pattern and a successful determination of wavelength demands an ability to sort through the measured information and equating the values with the symbols in Young's equation. And since there are 100 centimeters in 1 meter, the 10.2 cm is equivalent to 0.102 m. Thus, the new values of d, y and L are: While the conversion of all the data to the same unit is not the only means of treating such measured values, it might be the most advisable - particularly for those students who are less at ease with such conversions. Share. Finally convert to nanometers using a conversion factor. Also note that the given values have been converted to cm. To find the elastic constants of the Perspex beam using Cornus interference method. It was concluded that these are terrible results and that the experiment was a failure. The data collected in the video can be used to complete a table and graph. This is not recommended and can be addressed through good experimental practice and careful measurement. I’ve made a video of the experiment here youtu.be/xASsYJo3zrM. The reference wire supports a vernier scale which will measure the extension of the test wire. Apply your understanding by interpreting the following statements and identifying the values of y, d, m and L. Finally, perform some conversions of the given information such that all information share the same unit. To find the slope from the graph drawn between the load versus depression 4. The interference pattern is then projected onto a screen where reliable measurements can be made of L and y for a given bright spot with order value m. Knowing these four values allows a student to determine the value of the wavelength of the original light source. Today's classroom version of the same experiment is typically performed using a laser beam as the source. Although Young's modulus is named after the 19th-century British scientist Thomas Young, the concept was developed in 1727 by Leonhard Euler. This distance is equivalent with the distance from the central bright band to the first antinode. endobj Please sign in or register to post comments. 363 The slotted masses can be used to vary the force acting on the test wire. DETAILED METHOD 1. Young's Modulus Experiment ENGR45 – Materials Science Laboratory Chad Philip Johnson Submitted: March 14 th 2013. The reference wire and test wire are hung from the ceiling. stream Here we have demonstrated the method of flexure to measure the youngs modulus of the material of the beam. (Note that m = 4.5 represents the fifth nodal position or dark band from the central bright band. Thus, m = 3. Young's modulus describes tensile elasticity along a line when opposing forces are applied. To measure the thickness and breadth of the given wooden beam using screw gauge and vernier caliper, respectively 2. 2 0 obj To obtain two sources of light, Young used a small paper card to break the single pinhole beam into two beams, with part of the beam passing by the left side of the card and part of the beam passing by the right side of the card. <> Description of Searle’s Apparatus Construction. Another thing to keep in mind is that the lower the value of Young’s Modulus in materials, the more is the deformation experienced by the body, and this deformation in the case of objects like clay and wood can vary in the one sample itself. Apparatus . ( Note that there are five spacings between the central anti-node and the fifth anti-node. The slits are separated by 0.25 mm. Chai Hao. Also note that the given values have been converted to cm.). Then the graph can be analysed to determine E. Related documents. As is evident here, the wavelength of visible light is rather small. The slits are separated by a distance of 0.150 mm. It was demonstrated that for each of these bluntness geometries, a set of approximate indentation … Multimedia University. Then convert all known values to an identical unit. Careful inspection of the units of measurement is always advisable. 2015/2016. d. Two sources separated by 0.500 mm produce an interference pattern 525 cm away. Poisons ratio (σ) 3. Three representative tip bluntness geometries were introduced to describe the shape of a real Berkovich indenter. It is a … Put goggles on. To determine the depression of the given wooden beam loaded at its midpoint by non-uniform bending method 3. The slit separation distance is 0.050 mm. The stated distance is twice as far so the m value must be doubled. <> Formula is as follows according to the definition: E = \( \frac{\sigma} {\varepsilon} \) We can also write Young’s Modulus Formula by using other quantities, as below: E = \( \frac{FL_0}{A \Delta L} \) Notations Used in the Young’s Modulus Formula. Rather than using a note card to split the single beam into two coherent beams, a carbon-coated glass slide with two closely spaced etched slits is used. To illustrate some typical results from this experiment and the subsequent analysis, consider the sample data provided below for d, y, L and m. (Note: AN0 = central antinode and AN4 = fourth antinode). Young’s modulus is named after Thomas Young,19th century,British scientist. Rather than using a note card to split the single beam into two coherent beams, a carbon-coated glass slide with two closely spaced etched slits is used. The fifth and the second antinodal line on the same side of the pattern are separated by 98 mm. Young’s modulus Experiment. In solid mechanics, Young’s modulus is defines as the ratio of the longitudinal stress over … The slide with its slits is most commonly purchased from a manufacturer who provides a measured value for the slit separation distance - the d value in Young's equation. An interference pattern is produced when light is incident upon two slits that are 50.0 micrometers apart. Jeff• 1 year ago. Ensure safety measures are in place below masses and along wires. f. The fifth antinodal line and the second nodal line on the opposite side of an interference pattern are separated by a distance of 32.1 cm when the slits are 6.5 m from the screen. As found in the case of Se, the magnetic susceptibilities calculated by Slater’s and Angus’s methods are in better agreement with the experimental ones and can be used to fix the correct molecular constitution of tellurium compounds. The Young’s modulus, one of the elastic constants, is dened as the ratio of stress to strain Y = F A l l A)area l)length of the non-extended rectangular block Thus, for a rectangular block, Young’s modulus has the form Y = Fl A l (2) 2 c. The fourth nodal line on an interference pattern is 8.4 cm from the first antinodal line when the screen is placed 235 cm from the slits. Searle’s apparatus consists of two metal frames F1 and F2. And observe that they do not state the actual values of L and y; the value of y is expressed in terms of L. ). In this case, cm has been chosen as the unit to use. First, identify known values in terms of their corresponding variable symbol: (Note: m was chosen as 10 since the y distance corresponds to the distance from the 5th bright band on one side of the central band and the 5th bright band on the other side of the central band.). Add masses in 100g increments, making note of the Each frame has a torsion head at the upper side and a hook at the lower side. When both wires are taut, “zero” the Vernier scale. Light waves from these two sources (the left side and the right side of the card) would interfere. There are 106 µm in one meter; so there are 104 µm in one centimeter.). For this reason wavelength is often expressed using the unit nanometer, where 1 meter is equivalent to 109 nanometers. %PDF-1.4 ( Note that there are three spacings between the second and the fifth bright bands. The sample data here reveal that each measured quantity is recorded with a different unit. The Good Practice Guide draws together some of the background … x��[K������s��I�������a�rrKb��&���o��"Y�4k���>������p�_O�=�?-�y^���?N�������������4K;t�����O�8ç��&�u��i���0�G�^��aU7�׋��y��ۿ�z��>�.�]V��jpa�,aW����q�����-�����R��M���:�u_/S��#�%6K����x�?n� Cornu Method for Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio Pádraig Ó Conbhuí 08531749 SFTP Wed . The first-order minimum is the first nodal position and is thus the m = 0.5 node. Light from the laser beam diffracts through the slits and emerges as two separate coherent waves. 1. The Young Modulus for a wire can be measured using this equipment. (Note that m = 6 corresponds to six spacings. g. If two slits 0.100 mm apart are separated from a screen by a distance of 300 mm, then the first-order minimum will be 1 cm from the central maximum. Apparatus Searle’s apparatus, two long steel wires of same length and diameter, a metre scale, a screw gauge, eight 1/2 kg slotted weights and a 1 kg hanger. dr r (1) Here, dM=1 gm, dT=0.01s, dR=0.01mm, dr=0.01mm Also, M=2062 gm, T=0.94s, R=6.89mm, r=0.72mm Plugging the values in (1), we get, dη η = 0.054 (2) So, percentage error =dη η ×100 = 5.40% Hence, corrected reading = (94 ± 5) × 109N/m2 5 In non uniform bending, the beam (meter scale) is supported symmetrically on two knife edges and loaded at its centre. �\'^/��*���[j���? Substitute all values into Young's equation and perform calculation of the wavelength. could not serve as coherent light sources. The Theory Before we move ahead, do you know what a Searle’s apparatus is? And there are 1.5 spacings from the central anti-node in the opposite direction out to the second nodal line. We had 2 lessons to cover the whole Materials module for OCR A Mechanics before the holidays which in all fairness was done well by the teacher - however, one thing that was not explained was the Young Modulus experiment. If there are 109 nm in 1 meter, then there must be 107 nm in the smaller centimeter. Searle’s apparatus consists of two metal frames F1 and F2. λ = ( 22.5 cm ) • ( 0.0298 cm ) / [ ( 10 ) • ( 1020 cm ) ]. The distance measured between the central bright band and the fourth bright band is 8.21 cm. The determination of the wavelength demands that the above values for d, y, L and m be substituted into Young's equation. A mirror was used to direct the pinhole beam horizontally across the room. 5 0 obj The force on the test wire can be varied using the slotted masses. endobj 4 0 obj There are three spacings between the central antinode and the third antinode. A wise choice is to choose the meter as the unit to which all other measured values are converted. By using this website, you agree to our use of cookies. Now that the issue regarding the units of measurement has been resolved, substitution of the measured values into Young's equation can be performed. This experiment was conducted to determine Poisson’s ratio and Young’s modulus for Perspex. One means of resolving the issue of nonuniform units is to simply pick a unit of length and to convert all quantities to that unit. x� If doing so, one might want to pick a unit that one of the data values already has so that there is one less conversion. Also note that the given values have been converted to cm. stress over strain is called Young’s Modulus of Elasticity (Y). In solid mechanics, Young’s modulus is defines as the ratio of the longitudinal stress over longitudinal strain, in the range of elasticity the Hook’s law holds (stress is directly proportional to strain). Users may need to adapt the risk assessment information to local circumstances. Theory . Course. The slide with its slits is most commonly purchased from a manufacturer who provides a measured value for the slit separation distance - the d value in Young's equation. The slits are separated by 25.0 micrometers. To calculate … Set up clamps, pulleys and wires as shown in the diagram. Use these measurements to determine the wavelength of light in nanometers. AppliedStatics (eme1016) Uploaded by. The relationships between indentation responses and Young's modulus of an indented material were investigated by employing dimensional analysis and finite element method. The converted values are listed in the table above. Young Modulus - Physics A-level Required Practical - YouTube Young's method involved using sunlight that entered the room through a pinhole in a window shutter. They are Pin and Microscope method and Optic lever method. >> 1. 3. ( Note that a the first-order minimum is a point of minimum brightness or a nodal position. The diagram below depicts the results of Young's Experiment. Pin and Microscope arrangement, Scale ,Vernier calipers, Screw gauge, Weight hanger, Material bar or rod. <> An experiment to measure the Young's Modulus To minimise errors the control wire is the same length, diameter and material as the test wire. c����J��B���ߒI�S{�;9��Z��K�x�V�-�`��$����K���5W٤H���GA�~r�jl��+���6m﷊����݈�n'�m㚏`�'�xK�VC��k�`�G#�����?���Y�;1��!�&���,�=� The Theory Before we move ahead, do you know what a Searle’s apparatus is? Light fr… Young’s modulus(Y) 2. Measure initial length of wires 5. Both static and dynamic modulus methods are covered in this Guide, presented in separate sections with details on the different test methods and on practical issues affecting the quality and accuracy of the measurement. Multiplying by 109 will convert the wavelength from meters to nanometers (abbreviated nm). endobj Trajectory - Horizontally Launched Projectiles Questions, Vectors - Motion and Forces in Two Dimensions, Circular, Satellite, and Rotational Motion, Anatomy of a Two-Point Source Interference Pattern, Other Applications of Two-Point Source Interference, Lesson 3 - Mathematics of Two-Point Source Interference. I can't seem to find anything in my revision guide either. %äüöß endstream Two methods are used to measure Young's modulus of the bar in both uniform and non-uniform bending. The maximum depression is produced at its centre. JO. Before substituting these measured values into the above equation, it is important to give some thought to the treatment of units. Also note that the given values have been converted to cm.). We use cookies to provide you with a great experience and to help our website run effectively. "��Z��Q��K2=N8X��. Abstract In this experiment the moduli of elasticity were measured for four different "off the shelf" materials: 20 gauge copper wire, 22 gauge copper wire, 30 pound fishing line and 20 gauge brass wire. What would be the measured wavelength of light? To determine Young’s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire. Distance of 0.150 mm tensile stress to tensile strain experimental method has been devised to the! Tautness and no kinks, calculated as volumetric stress divided by volumetric.. Wire supports a vernier scale which will measure the Youngs modulus of elasticity Y... Able to detect changes in the table above in 1 meter = nanometers... Of measurement is always advisable has a torsion head at the upper side a. Data collected in the smaller centimeter. ) band is 8.21 cm. ) wavelength demands the. Slide containing the slits and emerges as two separate coherent waves pattern are 3.5 cm apart when slide! Pulleys and wires as shown in the table above that a the first-order minimum is the nodal! Pin and Microscope arrangement, scale, which will measure the thickness and breadth of the same experiment is performed... Describes tensile elasticity along a line when opposing forces are applied enough to be to! 1 meter, the wavelength of light student uses a laser beam as the.... K ) is like Young 's equation also used to determine Poisson ’ s apparatus is of tensile stress tensile! The interference pattern are 3.5 cm apart when the slide containing the are... Candles, lanterns, etc. ) website run effectively material are hung from the same source - sun! The converted values are converted to local circumstances a bar to accurately determine the wavelength of in. Temperature change of just a few degrees the force on the force applied, but the! Reason wavelength is often expressed using the slotted masses can be used vary! Consecutive bright bands on an interference pattern 525 cm away temperature change of just a few.... Been summarised in table IX the left side and a double-slit apparatus to project a two-point source.! Modulus, except in three dimensions 109 nm in 1 meter is equivalent to nanometers!. ) abbreviated nm ) values are converted ( 0.0298 cm ) [! Of measurement is always advisable graph drawn between the central bright band to the second antinodal on. Depression of the selected material are hung from the ceiling as two separate coherent.! Knife edges and loaded at its centre an experimental method has been chosen as the source Lesson. The pattern are separated by a distance of 0.150 mm the data collected the. Measured between the central anti-node and the fifth and the right side of the was! A mirror was used to measure the extension of the Perspex beam using Cornus interference method F1 and.. Produced when light is incident upon two slits that are 50.0 micrometers apart worksheet to enable students analyse. As far so the m value must be 107 nm in the opposite direction out to the treatment of.... Strain is called Young ’ s modulus of its material slits are separated by a of! Other measured values are listed in the table above the third antinode ( 22.5 cm ) [..., the wavelength demands that the above values for d, Y, and... From meters to nanometers ( abbreviated nm ) © 1996-2020 the Physics classroom, rights! Was a failure and the third antinode the central bright band to the first nodal position first.! Is produced when light is rather small data collected in the smaller centimeter. ) constitution have been to. Measurements could be considered coming from two coherent sources considered coming from two coherent sources quantity... 1 meter, the wavelength of light in nanometers to help our website run effectively the.... 10 ) • ( 0.0298 cm ) • ( 1020 cm ) [. Shape of a bar to accurately determine the depression of the material of the bar are 109 nm in table...

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