CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND FIBRE PROPERTIES. Ramie fibre is easily identified by its coarseness, thick walls, lacks twist and has striated surfaces25. It is also made into fabrics for household furnishings and clothing, frequently in … PROCESSING. On gum removal, the crystallites increase in width but deteriorate with regard to their alignment along the fibre axis21. (Brittain Bragunier), KW - AgSpace KW - crop yield KW - economic outlook and situation KW - Fiber … Lignocellulosic fibres like flax and ramie are also getting popularized in the current era. The separated cells of ramie, known as "filasse" although white and clean, are still somewhat harsh and dry. Either the fibre is imperfectly cleaned so that it can only be put to use for limited local purposes, or the output is much too low, or there too much wastage of fibre during the process of decortications11. The aim of the study was to remove noncellulosic gummy materials from the fiber thus softening it and prepare nonwovens through needle punch method. An Overview, Microbial Lipases and Their Industrial Applications: Review, Study on the Physical Properties of Blended Rotor Spun Yarn, Aliphatic C-H stretching of cellulose and hemicellulose is indicated by the peak 1377 cm–1 29. The coarseness of the fibre reduces its scope of application in apparels, but suitable blending may solve this issue. Unlike other bast crops, ramie requires chemical processing to de-gum the fiber. Ramie fiber needs to be processed specifically to get its texture comfortable and useable, because if not, it will have coarse texture. In another work36, degummed ramie fibre of cut staple length 20 cm was processed in flax carding system and subsequently blended with jute fibre during drawing stage. The photograph of ramie plant is shown in Fig. Ramie is widely cultivated not only in China, Japan, India and Malaya, but also in Queensland, Mauritius, the Cameroons, the West Indies, Brazil, Mexico and the southern states of North America, South Europe. Colour, strength, softness, length, fibre separation and defects (major, minor). As the plant matures, the number of stalks increases with a corresponding increase in yields up to the fourth year, an average of 4, 7, 10 and 13 t of green stalks may be harvested per acre in each of the first 4 years, respectively and 13-17 t annually thereafter. After harvesting, if the ribbons are not to be stripped from the stalks right away and the fibre extracted, the cut stems or ribbons should be dried as soon as possible, to prevent bacterial attack. Decortication is to be done immediately after harvest and therefore, a harvesting schedule is planned in relation to the decortications capacity of the machines used9. Form the table 1 it is observed that the cellulosic content in ramie is much more than other bast fibre like Jute and Hemp. Then, the cortexes are scraped to remove shell and partial gums. Due to the presence of gum, the fibre becomes stiff and brittle. It is a durable fiber. China is the biggest producer of ramie fibre followed by Brazil and Philippines (Fig. The fibre possesses some very valuable properties because of its silky, luster, unparallel strength, durability and its suitability to blend with all other natural and manmade fibres. It is one of the strongest natural fibres having rich cellulose content. Harvesting is done either by manually or by using mechanical harvesters. The bast of ramie cannot be removed from the woody tissue in which it is embedded by a simple retting process such as is used for flax, hemp and jute. It is almost 6 times stronger than cotton, 2 times that of flax and almost equals silk in its lustre. Apart from that, ramie also find application in sacks, carpets, reinforced polymers, twine, handicrafts, paper, cordage, gas mantles, fishing nets and marine packaging. Here, I have written about the properties of ramie fibers. The decorticator and decorticated ramie fibre is shown as in Fig. Ramie fibre is extracted through decorticator machine. Lignin degradation starts at about 280°C and continues even above 500°C. Finally analyse the effect of lattice distortion modification processing on the lattice structure of ramie fiber. --- "Revision of, and supersedes Miscellaneous circular no. Still considerable research works are going on the application of ramie fibres in new areas like composites are the promises for tomorrow’s technology, which shows a clear indication towards the prosperity of the fibre in the coming future. Ramie fibre will be graded before taken in to processing industry. Unlike other bast crops, ramie requires chemical processing to de-gum the fiber. Some users (textile mills) have lost interest in the fibre mainly because of the problems of irregularity of quality supply and as well as processing difficulties and these have further discouraged the industrial sector from promoting the use of ramie. It is also known as china grass2. Ramiè (the ramia) is an ancient natural fiber of vegetable origin derived from horticultural plants, the complex processing of the textile fiber makes ramie very rare in fashion, where we can highlight its use mainly in small tailoring companies. Ramie is a fiber crop originating from China that has great ability to tolerate and accumulate HMs. The study of She et al. In China elsewhere in the far East, ramie is used for a number of purposes such as clothing, table-cloths, handkerchiefs, etc. The high potentiality of Ramie is not much exploited in counties, other than china. The fibre is derived from the inner bast tissues of the stem. Generally two methods of grading are adopted. So, it is always better to remove the gum content of ramie fibre before going for the processing of the fibre. Ramie is a premium plant fibre with several useful characteristics and improvements in processing methods may well result in ramie becoming a … Natural fibres are gaining importance day by day in all over the world. Ramie is one of the strongest fibers. Abstract. In principle, any machine which is used for sisal or kenaf decortications can be adjusted for ramie. It is referred to as bast fiber. Scientists working in natural fibres should address these problems so that the fibre will get popularised. Some have been in use for a long while, but they all have drawbacks for commercial big scale production. Hand and eye method and instrumental method. Another difficulty with the crop is its very low production by itself. Coming to the present condition of cultivation in India, very few areas of states like West Bengal and Assam is showing some interest and the production is very minimal. They are not only using for making clothing, but also finds other diversified applications. If the stems are allowed to become too mature, lignification takes place. These discrepancies can be partly attributed to the effects of source of supply, method of processing, the test conditions, temperature and humidity, on the fiber strength. From the Fig. The finest yarns are produced on the spun silk system developed by the Japanese, but this system is labour intensive. To make them suitable for spinning, the decorticated ramie fibre has to be degummed in an effort to separate the individual fibres free from gums, waxes and pectins and leave them in a soft, clean state with their strength and other textile characteristics intact. Properties of Ramie Fibers: The properties of ramie fibers are given below: Ramie is a cellulosic natural fiber. The stems are green until they are mature, but then they begin to turn brown, starting at the bottom. There may be several reasons behind it, especially, the difficulties associated with decortication, degumming, pest and diseases. Processing of Ramie Fiber with Enzymes for Nonwovens KEYWORDS : Ramie fiber, Hemicellu-lase, Pectinase, Cellulase, Needle punch, Nonwoven Weight loss occurs between 290 and 380°C, mainly corresponds to cellulose degradation. Degumming can be done with chemicals like sodium hydroxide13,14 or with enzymes15-19 or with microbial action20. The decorticated and chemically degummed fibres are as shown in Fig. Currently National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology (NIRJAFT) is working for the development of a new grading system for ramie fibre. The ramie fiber (Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud, Boehmeria nivea var. Apart from textile uses, ramie fibre can be utilised for the production of various diversified products. The fiber is composed of pure cellulose being resistant to microbial attacks. The use of ramie is limited by its price and spinning properties. PRELIMINARY PROCESSING OF RAMIE: FIBRE EXTRACTION. The fibre is coarser and consists of hairs, projecting from the surface, its length varies considerably from 40-200 mm and the fibre diameter is around 25-30 μm. Before spinning, the fibres are sorted into three lengths, i.e., long, medium and short. The decorticator consists of a beater or breaker plate and a metal drum, which is equipped with steel beater blades or knives that are set at equal intervals on the periphery of the drum. Ramie is similar to linen fiber. Generally caustic soda is used for degumming process. The market prize of ramie fibre is determined by grading system. Removal of the gum enables the fibre to take a more crystalline form. The existing jute grading system can also be adoptable in the case of ramie. The results show that, compared to long ramie fibers processed in a conventional ramie spinning system, the stretch-broken fibers, with reasonable fiber length and high length uniformity, can be processed in a cotton spinning system with high efficiency … Table 2 shows weight loss percentage of ramie fibre subjected to heating in varied temperature, indicating nature of thermal decomposition. On the other hand, growers of ramie are not likely to produce large quantities of the fibre-unless they have a reasonable assurance that there would be a large demand for it. Weight loss (%) ramie fibre subjected to heating in varied temperature, indicating nature of thermal decomposition,, FAO statistics, 2013, (a) Fiber yield hg ha, Varieties of ramie, white ramie and green ramie, SEM photograph of (a) Decorticated (b) Combined degummed and bleached ramie fibre, Chemical composition of bast fibres by percentage mass, Mechanical methods of extracting the fibre from the stalks and, particularly, for subsequent degumming of the strands are still in an experimental stage, Although flax, cotton and silk machinery have been utilized for processing, ramie is best prepared on machinery constructed primarily for the purpose, Surface of the fibres is very smooth and difficulty is encountered in making the strands interlock when spinning fine counts of yarns, so that ramie fabrics have a tendency to be uneven. Of course, numerous patents have been published relating to the degumming of ramie and there is certainly death of information on the subject. See more ideas about fiber, plant fibres, natural fibers. A combined process technology for degumming and bleaching for ramie fibre in a single bath is under progress in NIRJAFT (National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology), Kolkata. The tensile strength varies from 400-1600 MPa. Prolonged treatment with strong alkali and strong acids causes loss in strength of the fibre and also hydrolysis of cellulose. Still in present scenario, there is much scope for research and development on this valuable fibre. The tenacity, wet strength, extensibility are increases. The high potential of ramie fibre is not fully exploited due to various techno-economic reasons. The extracted fibrous material, after washing, should be immediately dried or degummed to prevent the development of mildew. Harvesting: The stems are green until they are mature, but then they begin to turn brown, starting at the bottom. In Japan, ramie is used for canvas, suit-cloth, mat-edge, cloth and a large number of other purposes7. The highest yield is attained in the third and fourth years and maintained until the plant is about six years old8. It is harvested and processed to yield strong fibers of the same name, which are used in the production of textiles, twine, upholstery, filters, and sacking.Like flax, jute, and hemp, ramie is considered a bast fiber crop, meaning that the usable portion of the plant is found in its connective tissue structures. Normally, about 60% of the total weight of the degummed material will be long fibre. Ramie has been used as a textile fibre in China and Southern Asia for centuries and it is said to have been known in ancient Egypt. It was used in mummy cloths in Egypt during the period 5000-3300 BC and has been grown in China for many centuries. From 4-5% of ramie ribbons are cleaned from the stalks, so that from 400-1400 pounds per acre are yield annually in the same period, the average yield ranging around a thousand pounds. The processing of ramie fibers needs to start immediately after the plants are cut or else the pectin hardens and this makes it almost impossible to remove. Ramie can be used, generally speaking, for those purposes for which flax and hemp are normally used-particularly for twines and threads, for which purposes its properties of strength and lack of stretch make it most suitable. It is one of the strongest fiber then others. tenacissima), also referred as Chinese grass or white ramie, is a member of the Urticaceae family and principally produced in China, Japan, and several other South Asian countries [2]. Instead, it must first undergo a severe pounding or scraping to remove the outer bark, which is administered by hand or by one of the many types of decorticating machines. A comprehensive transcriptome assembly of ramie has not been made available, to date. Cellulose is a polysaccharide (i.e., a polymeric sugar) which can be represented by a simple formula (C6H10O5)n. The chemical composition of ramie fibre is as shown in Table 1. Bast fibers are fibers from cellulose in the stalks of plants. Ramie is still not used much by the textile industry largely because it is a high cost fibre due to its complex processing requirements. The fibre yield and area of cultivation is shown in the Fig. "Contribution from Bureau of Plant Industry." Mar 13, 2018 - Explore Bansky Bernadett's board "Ramie- Fiber" on Pinterest. The FTIR spectrum of raw ramie fibre is shown in Fig. As mentioned above, ramie is not retted in the same way as are other stem fibres such as jute, hemp, flax, etc., because the pectinous substances in ramie are far more difficult to remove or break down than those present in these other fibres. The weight loss is mainly because of evaporation of water and volatile substances (low molecular weight waxes and fats). preliminary processing of ramie: fibre extraction The fibre is derived from the inner bast tissues of the stem. Still, countries like Brazil, India, Philippines, Taiwan, France, etc., are also cultivating ramie in small volumes. In Europe, Brazil and the Philippines, some modifications are made.

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