Fast-forwarding to the nineteenth century, the people pf Basque expressed an increasing desire to preserve the nation’s language culture with all its diversities. Routledge, 2000. An Example of Standardization and Divergence: Latin, The Creation and Enforcement of Language Standards, Definition and Examples of Acrolects in Language, What You Should Know About Creole Language, Definition and Examples of Linguistic Prestige, Key Events in the History of the English Language, Definition and Examples of Dialect Leveling, Standard English Definitions and Controversies, Definition and Examples of Codification in English. Standardization. ", "English, of course, developed a standard variety by relatively 'natural' means, over the centuries, out of a kind of consensus, due to various social factors. March 2015, Dudleylm.files.wordpress.com. “Language Ideologies and the Consequences of Standardisation”. Among, 431 publications made between 1967 and 1977, only 3.3% of books published in 1967 had incorporated the new rules of spelling, declined and conjugated forms. More people speak a variety of Chinese as a Accessed 6 March 2017. Ph.D., Rhetoric and English, University of Georgia, M.A., Modern English and American Literature, University of Leicester, B.A., English, State University of New York. Elkartea, Garabide. One point to note is that human language does not necessarily need to divide into different forms. Hence the prestige and legitimacy of a ‘standard’ does not in the first instance, as Dr. Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks. Authority In Language. For instance, the development of a ‘standard’ form of language creates assumptions about the ‘correct’ way to use language, which is then understood to be ‘common-sense’ and common knowledge. Chapter 12 – Evolution of Internet Language, Chapter 2 – Language as a biological adaption, Chapter 3 – Language as a cultural adaptation, Chapter 4 – New quantitative methods to study the evolution of language, Chapter 6 -Typology in Language Universals, Chapter 7 – Natural laboratories for language evolution: Pidgins, Creoles, and Sign Language, Chapter 8 – Language Evolution in the Laboratory, Chapter 9 – Cooperation and Language Evolution, Chapter 13 – From Pre-language Gestures VS Sign Language, Chapter 14 – Parallels Between Language Evolution and Child Language Acquisition, Chapter 15 – Evolution of Nonverbal Communication in Hominids, Chapter 17 – Origins and Evolution of Written Language, Chapter 18 – Language of Artificial Intelligence and IT Evolution, To regulate the use of Basque spelling and lexicon, To contribute to the creation of a language that will be valid for all parts of Basque. But when Charlemagne conquered his huge kingdom in 800, he brought in Alcuin from England. However, in 1977, almost 65.4% of publications complied with the standard guidelines. Learning about the standardization of languages, or how languages get formalized and codified in one specific way, offers insight into the overlap between linguistics, culture and politics. It is a three-step process of standardising literacy/script, vocabulary, and then digital rendering (i.e. Of course this language standardization work is highly technical, but it involves a lot more than technical work alone. Primarily concerned with the evolution of specific human languages, standardisation can only occur when a socie… For instance, the maintenance stage can start quite early in the process, and continues throughout (Milroy 23). Overall, the whole process aims to create a ‘melting pot’ environment, homogenising a certain culture that comes with the language. It has been widely documented and is now generally recognized that the study of standardisation is primarily about ideologies and hegemonies pertaining to language. The basic objectives of the academy were: In a further effort to standardise the language of the country, Koldo Mitxelena proposed a set of guidelines for the new language standard in 1968. Standardization may occur as a natural development of a language in a speech community or as an effort by members of a community to impose one dialect or variety as a standard. Therefore, language standardisation is never stagnant or complete, but will continue revising itself as long as the language is still in use. Fairclough, Norman. The confluence of diverse cultures and perspectives within a territory serves as one explanation for the evolution of language. They believed that the promotion of the standard was “essential to turn Basque into a modern instrument”, 61% of the 196 Basque writers that were interviewed used the standard language in their writings for they believed in the “need to convert the language into an instrument of culture”. We need not thinkof them as being chronological. The chosen one is then accepted by the dominant clans in society, who have the power to control how and where this language is standardized and diffused. It is the choices societies make that result in differing languages. The British standard held sway throughout the world until very recently, when some other countries began to first accept and then to teach American orthography and lexical choices. Dudley, Leon. Standardization may occur as a natural development of a language in a speech community or as an effort by members of a community to impose one dialect or variety as a standard. It is an ongoing historical process that develops a standard written and oral language to be practiced by everyone in a society. Formulation, Codification, Elaboration, and Implementation. Another interesting point relates to the superiority of specific language forms. Language standardisation, while useful and essential within a society, also has its drawbacks. The term standard language occasionally refers to the entirety of a language that includes a standardized form as one of its varieties. Societies themselves pick their own standard forms of language, and hence, different societies in different places, and of different cultures, can all pick vastly different (or even somewhat similar) language forms to adhere to. Charlemagne mandated it for his whole empire. Additionally, we must recognise that language standardisation also ensues in response to increasing trade and capitalism. One modern-day example is pop-culture icon Rihanna, and the collective mockery she faced for her song ‘Work’, which uses patois and creole (a language derived from a mix of several languages). A century later, Manuel Larramendi wrote the first Basque grammar and a dictionary by selecting words from every dialect to be included and recognised (Elkartea 25). People expect their language to serve a role that is beyond communication. Establishing a standard language ultimately shapes the standard ‘reality’ of the people (Fairclough 203-4). Despite being associated with the upper class and being well-educated, most recent reports suggest that this form is practiced by a mere 2% of the population (British Library Board). It is important to note that these stages are hypothetical, and can sometimes overlap with one another. The effects of language standardization on acceptance and use are explored using the four constructs of Venkatesh et al.’s (2003) Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) – effort expectancy, performance expectancy, social influence and facilitating conditions – as a conceptual framework and guide in the analysis. "The interaction of power, language, and reflections on language inextricably bound up with one another in human history, largely defines language standardization. Thus, keep in mind that language standardisation is a conscious course of development that produces both good and bad effects. Romper, 25 March 2016, https://www.romper.com/p/rihannas-work-lyrics-use-creole-patois-totally-confusing-music-critics-7707. ... View Item; JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Language and power: An introduction to institutional discourse. in aspects of writing, reading, and speaking), while 80% agreed that learning and using the standard Basque was necessary for work and for everyday life. Once it has gained general approval, the standard language is rigorously maintained through several means. "Standardization is concerned with linguistic forms (corpus planning, i.e. Language Standardisation:Basque Recovery II. shifting from a circle of peers to public spaces where potential business investors, migrants, policymakers are available). What motivations were there for language standardisation? The term standardization is generally used within linguistics to refer to the process of bringing about a standard language. by Sally Johnson and Tommaso M. Milani. Therefore, it is evident that it does not represent the consensus of the United Kingdom. Received Pronunciation. First, he nominated the central dialect as the standard language of the country as he believed it to be “where the heart of [the] country is, and because it has played a dynamic role in the history of [their] literature” (Elkartea 32). Language Ideologies and Media Discourse: Texts, Practices, Politics, ed. Accessed 1 April 2017. Oxford University Press, 2012, Ana Deumert, Language Standardization, and Language Change: The Dynamics of Cape Dutch. What is language standardisation? The growth in industrial technologies signified a great deal of cooperation between individuals of different skillsets, and effective collaboration could only occur when both parties speak and write the same standard language. Language standardisation and language change: The dynamics of Cape Dutch. Instead of appointing one language form as the standard, Joanes Leizarrage developed a new language – one that was a combination of the various dialects he observed – that he believed would be understood by the general population (Elkartea 25). In fact, we use language in many different ways, some of these are, the informational, the expressive, the directive, the phatic, the aesthetic. Located in northern Spain, the community saw themselves as autonomous given their diverse historical roots and cultural groups within the country. This cultural evolution gives rise to an interesting phenomenon known as ‘language standardisation’. Standardization, it is argued, is necessary in order to facilitate communications, to make possible the establishment of an agreed orthography, and to provide a uniform form for school books. Crystal, David. Unsurprisingly, literacy is still highly regarded today as the leading institutional marker for a nation’s development. Vol. Thus, we should remember that language standardisation is a process aimed at creating one standard, cohesive language in a society, although (due to the dynamic nature of society) it generally does not achieve this goal. Hence, we can see that this division is somewhat “man-made”. We use language and that language is a part of society. Formulation: setting the goals of the policy. implementation and elaboration). One example of this is British Received Pronunciation, which some scholars deem the ‘standard’ form of English in the United Kingdom (Milroy 532-533). creating a type-able Unicode). 90% of 570 language educators used the standard language daily (viz. 19. Structural Features of Language and Language Use ... of standardization in technical set-tings. (It is, of course, an open question as to how much, if any, standardization is really required. standardization definition: 1. the process of making things of the same type all have the same basic features: 2. the process…. 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