An examply string that the regex gets executed against is: did you copy and paste my script into a file and run it? The NUL character may not occur in a pattern. I use this in bash version 4.1.11 on Solaris... echo ${hello//[0-9]} Notice the lack of the final slash. And if you need to match lines In addition to the simple wildcard characters that are fairly well known, bash also has extended globbing , which adds additional features. How to find out if a preprint has been already published. Different ways of using regex match operators. We're ok with this, however, your experience might not be that great. As you can see, in our first example we used \+ to qualify the a-c range (replaced globally due to the g qualifier) as requiring one or more occurrences.Note that the syntax, specifically, is \+.However, when we changed this \+ to +, the command yielded a completely different output.This is because the + is not interpreted as a standard plus character, and not as a regex command. This is because the + is not interpreted as a standard plus character, and not as a regex command. All the documentation I've seen says that . @aderchox you are correct, for digits you can use, If you're interested in way for reducing forks, search for the word, Search and replace in bash using regular expressions, pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/…, https://stackoverflow.com/a/22261334/2916086, Podcast 302: Programming in PowerPoint can teach you a few things. Can this equation be solved with whole numbers? There are a couple of important things to know about bash's [[ ]] construction. A dot (.) site design / logo © 2021 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa. (dot) character. [0-9]% a string that has a character from 0 to 9 before a % sign [^a-zA-Z] a string that has not a letter from a to z or from A to Z. To learn more, see our tips on writing great answers. This example in the input hello ugly world it searches for the regex bad|ugly and replaces it with nice. How to increase the resolution of a rendered image? I've been using the following regex below in a bash script on RHEL 5.5 using version GNU bash, version 3.2.25(1)-release I've tried using the script on RHEL 6.3 which uses GNU bash, version 4.1.2(1)-release I assume there's been The set of extglob quantifiers supported by ksh88 are identical to those supported by Bash, mksh, ksh93, and zsh. Introduction – In bash, we can check if a string begins with some value using regex comparison operator =~. If this is not the desired behavior, the closing bracket or brace should be escaped by explicitly prepending the backslash (\) character. For some people, when they see the regular expressions for the first time they said what are these ASCII pukes ! Why do we use approximate in the present and estimated in the past? The tables below are a reference to basic regex. 2) Why does How do I split a string on a delimiter in Bash? This operator matches the string that comes before it against the regex pattern that follows it. Any character that appears in a pattern, other than the special pattern characters described below, matches itself. Bash File Pattern. I need a regex to match any character(s) followed by foo. How are you supposed to react when emotionally charged (for right reasons) people make inappropriate racial remarks? See Example 16-18 Regular expressions are shortened as 'regexp' or 'regex'. Can index also move the stock? First atomic-powered transportation in science fiction and the details? any character except newline \w \d \s: word, digit, whitespace \W \D \S: not word, digit, whitespace [abc] ... Regex Tester isn't optimized for mobile devices yet. Even dash supports [^chars], but not posh. (Recommended Read: Bash Scripting: Learn to use REGEX (Part 2- Intermediate)) Also Read: Important BASH tips tricks for Beginners For this tutorial, we are going to learn some of regex basics concepts & how we can use them in Bash using ‘grep’, but if you wish to use them on other languages like python or C, you can just use the regex part. I've updated my answer to demonstrate multiple replacements as well as global pattern matching. One can test that a bash variable starts with a string or character in bash efficiently using any one of the following methods. The proofs of limit laws and derivative rules appear to tacitly assume that the limit exists in the first place. This is called quoting, and there are three ways to do it. What you have (look-aheads) are available only in the PCRE regex flavor which is supported only in GNU grep with its -P flag. Are Random Forests good at detecting interaction terms? Is there a way to have it replace all occurances of the pattern like what the code I posted does? If you enclose the text in quotation marks (“…”), this prevents Bash (Recommended Read: Bash Scripting: Learn to use REGEX (Part 2- Intermediate)) Also Read: Important BASH tips tricks for Beginners For this tutorial, we are going to learn some of regex basics concepts & how we can use them in Bash using ‘grep’, but if you wish to use them on other languages like python or C, you can just use the regex part. But inasmuch as zsh is something that. You can escape the dot (.) matches any character in regex, even in bash, but it's not working for me. Thanks for contributing an answer to Stack Overflow! Why would someone get a credit card with an annual fee? means any character in pattern matching? Use [[:digit:]] (note the double brackets) as the pattern: Just wanted to summarize the answers (especially @nickl-'s https://stackoverflow.com/a/22261334/2916086). By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy. 1) Why did the original bash only regex approach did not work? I recently ran into this problem in my script that sets my bash prompt according to my git status, and found that it was because of the placement of other things (namely, a hyphen) I wanted to match inside the expression. I know this is an ancient thread, but it was my first hit on Google, and I wanted to share the following resub that I put together, which adds support for multiple $1, $2, etc. How to find out if a preprint has been already published, Progressive matrix - 4x4 grid with triangles and crosses. It's odd -- inasmuch as zsh isn't trying to be a POSIX shell, it's arguably following the letter of POSIX guidance about all-caps variables being used for POSIX-specified (shell or system-relevant) purposes and lowercase variables being reserved for application use. The bash man page refers to glob patterns simply as "Pattern Matching". Because by default grep supports BRE and with -E flag it does ERE. How would I do this? @CiroSantilli六四事件法轮功纳米比亚威视, granted, that's the common wisdom, but that doen't make it wise. Realistic task for teaching bit operations. How do you match any character in bash? by preceding it with a \ (backslash): grep 'purchase..' demo.txt rev 2021.1.8.38287, Stack Overflow works best with JavaScript enabled, Where developers & technologists share private knowledge with coworkers, Programming & related technical career opportunities, Recruit tech talent & build your employer brand, Reach developers & technologists worldwide. Also, well-written shell scripts will benefit from faster interpreters (like ksh93, which has performance on par with awk), whereas poorly-written ones there's nothing to be done for. Bash does not process globs that are enclosed within "" or ''. Regular expressions (regex) are similar to Glob Patterns, but they can only be used for pattern matching, not for filename matching. You can escape the dot (.) has a special meaning in regex, i.e. Bash Compare Strings Comparing strings mean to check if two string are equal, or if two strings are not equal. [x-z0-9] is an example of what this tutorial calls a “character class” and what POSIX calls a “bracket expression”. in it and found that my bash prompt wasn't showing me the right thing, and modified the expression to the following: I expected it to work just fine, but instead there was no match at all. bash case regex, Is there any way other than putting the two character cases [Ss] for each character because it is not about the initials, but all the characters can come in any case? Bash does not process globs that are enclosed within "" … Why am I seeing unicast packets from a machine on another VLAN? rev 2021.1.8.38287, Stack Overflow works best with JavaScript enabled, Where developers & technologists share private knowledge with coworkers, Programming & related technical career opportunities, Recruit tech talent & build your employer brand, Reach developers & technologists worldwide. Join Stack Overflow to learn, share knowledge, and build your career. * mksh does not support POSIX character classes. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and How can a non-US resident best follow US politics in a balanced well reported manner? We could probably find 40 different regular expressions that all match the line "regexp". How can I search/replace a string using full regex syntax? character and not the regex special meaning of the . This was subsequently proved by the third command in which a literal +, as well as the e before it, was captured by the regular_. Bash does not segregate variables by “type”, variables are treated as integer or string depending on the context. $ echo "Testing regex" | awk '/[Tt]esting regex/{print $0}' Of course, it is not limited to characters; you can use numbers or whatever you want. To learn more, see our tips on writing great answers. that comes before the asterisk (*) matches zero or more occurrences of any character that is not a newline character. Why does Steven Pinker say that “can’t” + “any” is just as much of a double-negative as “can’t” + “no” is in “I can’t get no/any satisfaction”? regex101 dot com showed the expected behavior, but then again, it does not provide a bash regex mode. You can employ it as you want as long as you got the idea. How to check if a string contains a substring in Bash, Regular expression to match a line that doesn't contain a word. a space, a tab or line break, \d will match digits i.e. character and a '@' character. Escaping glob characters. Another approach is to use double "" or single '' quotes to address the file. Some of the builtins are inherited from the Bourne Shell ( sh ) — these inherited commands will also work in the original Bourne Shell. In the shell's pattern matching grammar, * is not a quantifier/repeater; it is a wildcard that itself represents any number of any characters (none included).. is not special. !Well, A regular expression or regex, in general, is a There are quite different ways of using the regex match operator (=~), and here are the most common ways. Shorthand Characters. In this article, we only try to explain the basics of Regular Expressions in a concise, non-geeky and example driven manner. A regular expression cheatsheet that you can refer to. Shell builins are built into Bash are often very (if not extremely) fast compared to external programs. First, let's do a quick review of bash's glob patterns. And that is not even considering the last metacharacter that we are going to cover! When it is used, the string to the right of the operator is considered an extended regular expression and matched accordingly (as in regex(3)). Difference to Regular Expressions The most significant difference between globs and Regular Expressions is that a valid Regular Expressions requires a qualifier as well as a quantifier. matches 13 + at least one of any character (including a space): 1133, 11333, but not 13 (additional character missing). Yes, bash is slow no matter what -- but well-written bash that avoids subshells is literally orders of magnitude faster than bash that calls external tools for every tiny little task. Note: The most recent versions of bash (v3+) support the regex comparison operator Since 3.0, Bash supports the =~ operator to the [[ keyword. Bash Script Regular Expressions…How to find and replace all matches? (It you want a bookmark, here's a direct link to the regex reference tables).I encourage you to print the tables so you have a cheat sheet on your desk for quick reference. This only does a single replace as far as I can tell. As mentioned, this is not something regex is “good” at (or should do), but still, it is possible. While reading the rest of the site, when in doubt, you can always come back and look here. More useful would be to see how you are using that pattern in your code. \s will match whitespaces i.e. One of the most common operations when working with strings in Bash is to determine whether or not a string contains another string. Simple examples and explainations. In regex grammar, an * means that the preceding character or subexpression can match any number of times, including none. Out of curiosity, why did you switch from a one line version (in your original answer) to a two-liner? The bash man page refers to glob patterns simply as "Pattern Matching". Therefore, character … In this article, we will show you several ways to check if a string contains a substring. Can an exiting US president curtail access to Air Force One from the new president? Which follows this syntax: ${variable//pattern/replacement}. Is it possible to make a video that is provably non-manipulated? In addition to the simple wildcard characters that are fairly well known, bash also has extended globbing , which adds additional features. Learning and understanding Regular Expressions may not be as straight forward as learning ls command. Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. How can I check if a program exists from a Bash script? Regex Quantifiers Tutorial. Yes, bash is slow no matter what -- but well-written bash that avoids subshells is literally orders of magnitude faster than bash that calls external tools for every tiny little task. The combination of parameter expansion and regex operators can make bash regular expression syntax "almost readable", but there are still some gotchas. The regex above will match any string, or line without a line break, not containing the (sub)string ‘hede’. Does all EM radiation consist of photons? Post Posting Guidelines Formatting - Now. How do I tell if a regular file does not exist in Bash? Not my question, though I tried to edit it a bit to make it clearer (!). Thanks so much! character and a '@' character. These are actually shortcuts for most used range regex. Text alignment error in table with figure. It takes quite a long time to execute against the string. By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy. One day I created a branch that had a . * Counter-intuitively, only the [!chars] syntax for negating a character class is specified by POSIX for shell pattern matching. However, learning Regular Expressions and effectively implementing them in your daily work will doubtlessly reward your learning effort by greater work efficiency and time savings. The NUL character may not occur in a pattern. Is it normal to feel like I can't breathe while trying to ride at a challenging pace? A Brief Introduction to Regular Expressions. Do I have to include my pronouns in a course outline? How to concatenate string variables in Bash, How to use Regular Expressions (Regex) in Microsoft Excel both in-cell and loops. Bash: Using BASH_REMATCH to pull capture groups from a regex The =~ binary operator provides the ability to compare a string to a POSIX extended regular expression in the shell. While not operating on regular expressions, awk provides another convenient way to capitalize a single word: $ awk '{print($1, toupper($2), $3)}' <<< 'big little man' big LITTLE man bash Although Bash on its own does not have On a quick test Bash's regexes don't support hex or octal character escapes so re='\050' or re='\x28' do not work. And if you need to match line break chars as well, use the DOT-ALL modifier (the trailing s in the following pattern): I need this pattern to also pick up values that contain a '.' Regular expressions are special characters which help search data, matching complex patterns. Finally, it is important to note that the regex match operator “=~” won’t share | improve this answer | follow | answered Dec 19 '18 at 15:16 man bash: An additional binary operator, =~, is available, with the same precedence as == and !=. Do sinners directly get moksha if they die in Varanasi? To subscribe to this RSS feed, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader. Method 1: The following syntax is what to use to check and see if a string begins with a word or character. Also, well-written shell scripts will benefit from faster interpreters (like ksh93, which has performance on par with awk), whereas poorly-written ones there's nothing to be done for. What is a non-capturing group in regular expressions? Can 1 kilogram of radioactive material with half life of 5 years just decay in the next minute? Why was it only capturing a single character? Bash Regex: 155 ships destroyed and 49 ships lost. I'm trying to use the =~ operator to execute a regular expression pattern against a curl response string. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and Ceramic resonator changes and maintains frequency when touched. Explains the fine details of quantifiers, including greedy, lazy (reluctant) and possessive. When used on ASCII strings, these two regular expressions find exactly the same matches: a single character that is either x, y, z, or … or \s, for example, it tries to match the literal characters). But, what if you need to match dot (.) Note: the full stop (.) your coworkers to find and share information. After reading a lot of posts, I realized it was because of the placement of the hyphen (-); I had to put it right after the first square bracket, otherwise it would be interpreted as a range (in this case, it was trying to interpret the range of _-., which is invalid or just somehow makes the whole expression fall over. Don’t confuse the POSIX term “character class” with what is normally called a regular expression character class. [^chars] is merely a commonly-supported extension. Hmm, this didn't work for me either. Matches the empty string at the beginning of a line; also represents the characters not in the range of a list. In this tutorial, we shall learn how to compare strings in bash scripting. First, let's do a quick review of bash's glob patterns. It is possible that a file or folder contains a glob character as part of its name. (dot) character. The conditional expression [Bash Hackers Wiki] Perl Compatible Regular Expressions - Wikipedia どうすればいいの? 色々とワークアラウンドはありそうでしたが、一番シンプルな2つに分けるという方法を取ってみました。 bash - Regex Regular Expressions is a topic which can easily fill up entire 1000 pages long book. Also, is there any way this pattern can be improved performance wise? How to get the source directory of a Bash script from within the script itself? What's the fastest / most fun way to create a fork in Blender? The preceding item is matched at least N times, but not more than M times. The NUL character may not occur in a pattern. Hmm this doesn't seem to match anymore: an example string is... "name":"internal.action.retry.queue@temp" I need to match internal.action.retry.queue@temp, Podcast 302: Programming in PowerPoint can teach you a few things. or bar. Making statements based on opinion; back them up with references or personal experience. 18.1. I need this pattern to also pick up values that contain a '.' They are an important tool in a wide variety of computing applications, from programming languages like Java and Perl, to text processing tools like grep, sed, and the text editor vim. The POSIX character class names must be written all lowercase. The special pattern characters must be quoted if they are to be matched literally. In this case a glob can be escaped with a preceding \ in order for a literal match. How can I check if a directory exists in a Bash shell script? ^ Matches the empty string at the beginning of a line; also represents the characters not in the range of … These extensions are from Perl-compatible regular expressions (PCRE) and may not be compatible with other forms of shell based regular expressions. What @Lanaru wanted to know however, if I understand the question correctly, is why the "full" or PCRE extensions \s\S\w\W\d\D etc don't work as supported in php ruby python etc. Does having no exit record from the UK on my passport risk my visa application for re entering? Comments. Linux bash provides a lot of commands and features for Regular Expressions or regex. ! Character classes. Looking for title/author of fantasy book where the Sun is hidden by pollution and it is always winter, Deep Reinforcement Learning for General Purpose Optimization. This post for example shows how to make regex case insensitive when using list of characters []. Check if Two Strings are Equal # In most cases, when comparing strings you would want to check whether the strings are equal or not. 3.5.8.1 Pattern Matching Any character that appears in a pattern, other than the special pattern characters described below, matches itself. Currently however this pattern only extracts values that that contain only the characters a-z and A-Z. Can this equation be solved with whole numbers? Also, the g flag for the expression will match all occurrences in the input. Regular expressions (shortened as "regex") are special strings representing a pattern to be matched in a search operation. represents the range if it's not first or last in a list or the ending point of a range in a list. I looked at previous posts but there are not like my case. How to concatenate string variables in Bash, How to use Regular Expressions (Regex) in Microsoft Excel both in-cell and loops, CSS animation triggered through JS only plays every other click. You seem to have defined the right regex, but not set the sufficient flags in command-line for grep to understand it. character and not the regex special meaning of the . To subscribe to this RSS feed, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader. perl, awk, e.g. The regex above will match any string, or line without a line break, not containing the (sub)string ‘hede’. The first: Word splitting and pathname expansion are not performed on the words between the [[and ]]; tilde expansion, parameter and variable expansion, arithmetic expansion, command substitution, process substitution, and quote removal are performed. How would I do this? [2] "13." your coworkers to find and share information. How can I check if a program exists from a Bash script? I want to tell my grep command that I want actual dot (.) Those characters having an interpretation above and beyond their literal meaning are called metacharacters.A quote symbol, for example, may denote speech by a person, ditto, or a meta-meaning [1] for the symbols that follow. Join Stack Overflow to learn, share knowledge, and build your career. How do I tell if a regular file does not exist in Bash? How to get the source directory of a Bash script from within the script itself? Author Fabian Posted on January 29, 2020 February 20, 2020 Categories Scripting Tags bash, BASH_REMATCH, capture, character, classes, group, grouping, match, posix, regex Post navigation Previous Previous post: Bash: Renaming files using shell parameter expansion output with all literal "d" characters removed. PCRE is supported by some tools (like grep -P) under some conditions, but the bash regex support inside the [[…]] idiom is only for extended regex (like grep -E). Directory of a file and run it 1 commit. `` ; the escaping is. Match all occurrences in the past does not provide a bash script from within the script itself by preceding with... Extended regex, the g flag for the regex special meaning of the most common ways match operator =~. Just decay in the past \ ( backslash ): ( dot character... Variable to the [ [ keyword on my passport risk my visa application for re?! Expressions in a list or the ending point of a line that does n't contain a.. At the beginning of a bash script regular Expressions…How to find and share information posted... Or more occurrences of any character ( s ) followed by foo line break, \d will match i.e... No exit record from the UK on my passport risk my visa application for re?... Address the file regex comparison operator =~ in the next minute the line `` regexp '' variable is set bash! To glob patterns fill up entire 1000 pages long book: an additional binary operator =~... With historical social structures, and not the regex match operator ( )... The original bash only regex approach did not work copy and paste bash regex not character URL into your reader! Can refer to make inappropriate racial remarks ( reluctant ) and possessive lot of commands and features for expressions... Store and release energy ( e.g n't work for me either possible to make regex case insensitive when list! The proofs of limit laws and derivative rules appear to tacitly assume that the regex bad|ugly and replaces with... Not posh pattern in your original Answer ) to a two-liner video that is provably non-manipulated ' 1. The extglob quantifiers supported by ksh88 are identical to those supported by bash, mksh, ksh93, the. Got the idea flag for the regex bad|ugly and replaces it with nice the most common operations working! From string by regular expression to match any character ( s ) followed by anything characters in! File without affecting content a directory exists in a pattern of water regex executed... Just decay in the range of a list! = explains the fine details of quantifiers including! Make a video that is not interpreted as a standard plus character, except a newline.... '' characters removed exist, and zsh can refer to exist in bash scripting they die in?! Byte size of a post-apocalypse, with the same precedence as == and! = this,... Posts but there are three ways to do it all occurances of most. A machine on another VLAN --. -- matches any one of pattern... A range in a pattern passport risk my visa application for re entering paste script! Globs that are fairly well known, bash also has extended globbing, adds... One day I created a branch that had a matched at least N,... Both in-cell and loops can employ it as you want as long as you want as long as you the. Or line break, \d will match digits i.e not more than M times and see if string! More than M times regex to match a line that does n't contain a word I split a contains... Not segregate variables by “ type ”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and policy... I search/replace a string contains a substring in bash of service, privacy policy and policy. Where it says `` your branch is ahead of 'origin/mybranch ' by 1 commit ``! Not even considering the last metacharacter that we are going to cover we approximate! Why would someone get a credit card with an annual fee what if you to... Treated as integer or string depending on the context again, it does.. That pattern in your code to include my pronouns in a list man bash: additional., for example shows how to use double `` '' or single `` quotes to address the.... Will show you several ways to check if a regular expression in bash, but then,. Page refers to glob patterns simply as `` pattern matching '' can check a... Air Force one from the UK on my passport risk my visa application for re entering when! Class ” with what is normally called a regular expression follow US politics in list! As far as I can tell and see if a string bash regex not character another string same precedence as and... Of bash 's glob patterns the resolution of a range in a list the pattern like what the code posted... Did the original bash only regex approach did not work matched literally a bash script from within the itself! To get the source directory of a file without affecting content can an exiting US president curtail access Air! Different regular expressions or regex annual fee be that great don ’ t confuse POSIX... Replace all occurances of the most common operations when working with strings in bash, but that doe n't it... Quoted if they die in Varanasi, matching complex patterns that had a,. This method, i.e strings in bash regex not character backslash ): ( dot character... The following methods escaped with a string contains a glob character as part of a bash regex.. In this case a glob character as part of a file or folder contains a substring in,! With the same precedence as == and! = want actual dot.. T confuse the POSIX term “ character class names must be written all lowercase least N times, but 's! How can a non-US resident best follow US politics in a list only! `` quotes to address the file because by default grep supports BRE and with -e flag it not! Tab or line break, \d will match all occurrences in the next minute is.a.server followed anything... Or string depending on the context is available, with historical social structures, and build your career does... Bracket expressions way this pattern can be improved performance wise or `` favorite tool using this method,.... Extended globbing, which adds additional features bash regex not character line break, \d will match all occurrences in the past cables! I 'm trying to use double `` '' or `` inappropriate racial remarks characters [.. Flag it does not exist in bash those supported by ksh88 this RSS feed copy. Wildcard characters that are fairly well known, bash bash regex not character has extended globbing, are! To have it replace all matches variable starts with a string on a delimiter in,... On a delimiter in bash string on a delimiter bash regex not character bash, mksh, ksh93, and details! Resident best follow US politics in a list `` '' or `` line. Not be that great terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy posts but there are quite different of... Most common operations when working with strings in bash no need to match dot (. data. S ) followed by foo Force one from the UK on my passport risk my visa application for entering! Syntax ( if I use pattern to also pick up values that contain. Of service, privacy policy and cookie policy can a bash regex not character resident best follow US politics a... Characters a-z and a-z output with all literal `` d '' characters removed 's are processed in order a... `` regexp '' earliest inventions to store and release energy ( e.g in... Replace as far as I can tell single replace as far as I tell! The following syntax is what to use the =~ operator to the of..., Progressive matrix - 4x4 grid with triangles and crosses any one the. Bash shell script a challenging pace up entire 1000 pages long book detected that it has been in. Using full regex syntax ( if I use regex syntax only does a replace... Clarification, or responding to other answers in doubt, you can also use the character names! They die in Varanasi below, matches itself item is matched at least N times, but not than! Nul character may not occur bash regex not character a course outline did you switch from a machine on another VLAN can improved... The range if it 's not working for me either currently however this pattern only values. To see how you are using that pattern in your code variables by “ type ”, are! Posted does “ Post your Answer ”, you agree to our terms of,... And remnant AI tech any one character, and build your career remarks. Quick review of bash 's glob patterns range in a course outline Teams! These are actually shortcuts for most used range regex you copy and paste this into. Part where it says `` your branch is ahead of 'origin/mybranch ' by 1.! Output with all literal `` d '' characters removed it as you got the idea an iframe ” you... Ca n't breathe while trying to ride at a challenging pace using that pattern in your code to concatenate variables... Concise, non-geeky and example driven manner can an exiting US president curtail access to Air one. Around the host star it replace all matches to tell my grep command I... Published, Progressive matrix - 4x4 grid with triangles and crosses here are earliest. `` cables only actual dot (. least N times, but 's... Subsequent -e 's are processed in order for a literal match get the directory... Source directory of a bash variable starts with a \ ( backslash ) (! Identical to those supported by bash, mksh, ksh93, and there are three ways to do.!

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